Business Studies Part I
Business Studies Part II

Characteristics of Management

Management is a goal-oriented process: An organisation has a set of basic goals which are the basic reason for its existence. These should be simple and clearly stated. Different organisations have different goals

Management is all pervasive: The activities involved in managing an enterprise are common to all organisations whether economic, social or political

Management is multidimensional:(i)  Management is a complex activity that has three main dimensions. These are:

  1.  Management of work: All organisations exist for the performance of some work. In a factory, a product is manufactured, in a garment store a customer’s need is satisfied and in a hospital a patient is treated. Management translates this work in terms of goals to be achieved and assigns the means to achieve it. This is done in terms of problems to be solved, decisions to be made, plans to be established, budgets to be prepared, responsibilities to be assigned and authority to be delegated.
  2. Management of people: Human resources or people are an organisation’s greatest asset. Despite all developments in technology “getting work done through people” is still a major task for the manager. Managing people has two dimensions (i) it implies dealing with employees as individuals with diverse needs and behavior; (ii) it also means dealing with individuals as a group of people. The task of management is to make people work towards achieving the organisation’s goals, by making their strengths effective and their weaknesses irrelevant.
  3. Management of operations: No matter what the organisation, it has some basic product or service to provide in order to survive. This requires a production process which entails the flow of input material and the technology for transforming this input into the desired output for consumption.
  4. Management is a continuous process: The process of management is a series of continuous, composite, but separate functions (planning, organising, directing, staffing and controlling).
  5. Management is a group activity: An organisation is a collection of diverse individuals with different needs. Every member of the group has a different purpose for joining the organisation
  6. Management is a dynamic function: Management is a dynamic function and has to adapt itself to the changing environment.
  7. Management is an intangible force: Management is an intangible force that cannot be seen but its presence can be felt in the way the organisation functions.

The various features of management highlighted in the above paragraph are stated below:

  1. Management is all pervasive: “Considering the fact that the activities involved in managing an enterprise are common to all organizations, after completing their masters in business management, both of them take up a job at managerial level in different organizations as per their individual areas of interest.”
  2. Management is a goal-oriented process: “Anju takes up a marketing job in a retail company and strives to increase sales whereas Manju joins an NGO and works diligently to realize its objective related to providing employment to specially abled persons.”
  3. Management is a continuous process: “Both of them have to perform a series of continuous, composite, but separate functions. Like on some days, Anju may spend more time in planning a future display layout and on another day, she may spend time in sorting out an employee’s problem.”
  4. Management is a group activity: “Both Anju and Manju make conscious efforts to build a feeling of team spirit and coordination among diverse individuals with different needs who work under them.”

Management is an intangible force: “The effect of their management is noticeable in their respective departments as the targets are met according to plans, employees are happy and satisfied, and there is orderliness in its functioning rather than chaos.”