Development Experience (1947-90) and Economic Reforms since 1991
Current Challenges Facing Indian Economy
Development Experience of India
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Demographic Condition on the eve of independence

Demographic Condition on the eve of independence

Demographic Transition

Demographic transition is a model used to represent the movement of high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates as a country develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system.

It has 4 Stages:

Stage 1: Pre-Transition Period

In stage one (pre-industrial society), death rates and birth rates are high.

Therefore, the population remain stagnant during this phase.

Stage 2: Early transition 

In stage two, that of a developing country, the death rates drop quickly due to improvements in food supply and sanitation, which increase life expectancies and reduce disease, without the corresponding fall in the birth rate.

This stage experience a large increase in population (Population Explosion)

Stage 3: Late Transition

In stage three, birth rates fall due to various fertility factors such as access to contraception,  urbanisation, a reduction in subsistence agriculture, an increase in the status and education of women,  an increase in parental investment in the education of children and other social changes.

Population growth begins to decelerate.

Stage 4: Post transition

Post-transitional societies are characterised by low birth and low death rates.

Population growth is negligible, or even enters a decline.


Demographic Transition in India
  • The population of British India were first collected through a census in 1881.
  • Census of 1881 revealed the unevenness in India’s population growth. India Witness very high birth rate and death rate during this period, this implies India was on stage 1 of demographic transition.
  • 1921 is considered as the year of great divide because after 1921 India has experienced continuous growth in population, as death rate falls due to improvement in health facilities while the birth rate remained high. This clearly indicates the demographic transition to stage 2.

Literacy Rate
  • The overall literacy level was less than 16 per cent. Out of this, the female literacy level was at a negligible low of about seven per cent.

     

Health 
  • Public health facilities were either unavailable to large chunks of population or, when available, were highly inadequate.
  • Consequently, water and air-borne diseases were rampant and took a huge toll on life.

Infant Mortality Rate​
  • The infant mortality rate was​ quite alarming, about 218 per thousand in contrast to the present infant mortality rate of 40 per thousand.​ ​​​

​Life Expectancy

  • ​Life expectancy was also very low—44 years in contrast to the present 68 

Quick Acid Test

1921 is regarded as the year of the great divide or the defining year to mark the demographic transition from the first to the second decisive stage.

This is because of the stagnant population growth before 1921. In the first decisive stage until 1921, there was a high birth and death rate. The higher death rate caused a stagnant population of India before the period of 1921.

After 1921, there has been a significant increase in the population because of a low death rate(due to improvement in health facilities) and a higher birth rate in India.

Literacy Rate

  • The overall literacy level was less than 16 per cent. Out of this, the female literacy level was at a negligible low of about seven per cent.

Infant Mortality Rate​

  • The infant mortality rate was​ quite alarming, about 218 per thousand in contrast to the present infant mortality rate of 40 per thousand.​ ​​​

​Life Expectancy

  • ​Life expectancy was also very low—44 years in contrast to the present 68

Health 

  • Public health facilities were either unavailable to large chunks of population or, when available, were highly inadequate.
  • Consequently, water and air-borne diseases were rampant and took a huge toll on life.

Demographic Transition

1921 is considered as the year of great divide because after 1921 India has experienced continuous growth in population due to improvement in health facilities.

 

Demographic transition is a model used to represent the movement of high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates as a country develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system.

It has 4 Stages:

Stage 1: Pre-Transition Period

In stage one (pre-industrial society), death rates and birth rates are high.

Therefore, the population remain stagnant during this phase.

Stage 2: Early transition 

In stage two, that of a developing country, the death rates drop quickly due to improvements in food supply and sanitation, which increase life expectancies and reduce disease, without the corresponding fall in the birth rate.

This stage experience a large increase in population (Population Explosion)

Stage 3: Late Transition

In stage three, birth rates fall due to various fertility factors such as access to contraception,  urbanisation, a reduction in subsistence agriculture, an increase in the status and education of women,  an increase in parental investment in the education of children and other social changes.

Population growth begins to decelerate.

Stage 4: Post transition

Post-transitional societies are characterised by low birth and low death rates.

Population growth is negligible, or even enters a decline.