The three features of planning are described below:
- Planning is pervasive:Planning is not an special function, is equally essential at all levels of management. But the scope of planning varies at different levels and among different departments.
- Planning involves decision-making:Planning essentially involves*-application of rational thinking to choose the best alternative among the various available alternatives in order to achieve the desired goals efficiently and effectively.
- Planning is a primary function:Planning precedes all the functions of management i.e. organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. This refers to primacy of planning. Planning provides basis of all other functions.