Business Studies Part I
Business Studies Part II

Planning: Features

  • Planning focuses on achieving objectives by deciding upon the activities to be undertaken.
  • Planning is a primary function as it precedes all functions of management i.e. organising, staffing, directing& controlling.
  • Planning is pervasive as it is required at all the levels of management but its scope may vary.
  • Planning is continuous as plans need to be made on a continuous basis till an organisation exists.
  • Planning is futuristic as it seeks to meet future events effectively to the best advantage of an organisation. Planning is, therefore, called a forward looking function.
  • Planning involves decision-making as it involves rational thinking to choose the best alternative among the various available alternatives in order to achieve the desired goals efficiently and effectively.
  • Planning is a mental exercise as it is based on intellectual thinking involving foresight, visualisation and judgement rather than guess work.

The three features of planning are described below:

  1. Planning is pervasive:Planning is not an special function, is equally essential at all levels of management. But the scope of planning varies at different levels and among different departments.
  2. Planning involves decision-making:Planning essentially involves*-application of rational thinking to choose the best alternative among the various available alternatives in order to achieve the desired goals efficiently and effectively.
  3. Planning is a primary function:Planning precedes all the functions of management i.e. organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. This refers to primacy of planning. Planning provides basis of all other functions.