Selection is the process of identifying and choosing the best person out of a number of prospective candidates for a job. Towards this purpose, the candidates are required to take a series of employment tests and interviews.
Each stage many are eliminated and a few move on to the next stage until the right type is found. The process may start right from the screening of the applications. It may continue even after the offer of employment, acceptance and joining of the candidate. It is so because the process of selection, like any other managerial decision, involves judgment about the performance potential of the candidate. The effectiveness of the selection process would ultimately be tested in terms of on-the-job of the chosen person.
Process of Selection The important steps in the process of selection are as follows:
(i) Preliminary Screening: Preliminary screening helps the Manager eliminate unqualified or unfit job seekers based on the information supplied in the application forms. Preliminary interviews help reject misfits for reasons, which did not appear in the application forms.
Selection Tests: An employment test is a Mechanism and pencil test or an exercise) that attempts to measure certain characteristics of individuals. These characteristics range from aptitudes, such as manual dexterity, to intelligence to personality.
Important Tests Used for Selection of Employees:
(a) Intelligence Tests: This is one of the important psychological tests used to measure the level of intelligence quotient of an individual. It is an indicator of a person’s learning ability or the ability to make decisions and judgments.
(b) Aptitude Test: It is a measure of individuals potential for learning new skills. It indicates the person’s capacity to develop. Such tests are good indices of a person’s future success score.
(c) Personality Tests: Personality tests provide clues to a person’s emotions, her reactions, maturity and value system etc. These tests probe the overall personality. Hence, these are difficult to design and implement.
(d) Trade Test: These tests measure the existing skills of the individual.
They measure the level of knowledge and proficiency in the area of professions or technical training. The difference between aptitude test and trade test is that the former measures the potential to acquire skills and the later the actual skills possessed.
(e) Interest Tests: Every individual has fascination for some job than the other. Interest tests are used to know the pattern of interests or involvement of a person.
(iii) Employment Interview: Interview is a formal, in-depth conversation conducted to evaluate the applicant’s suitability for the job. The role of the interviewer is to seek information and that of the interviewee is to provide the same. Though, in present times, the interviewee also seeks information from interviewer.
(iii) Reference and Background Checks: Many employers request names, addresses, and telephone numbers of references for the
(iv) Selection Decision: The final decision has to be made from among the candidates who pass the tests, interviews and reference checks. The views of the concerned manager will be generally considered in the final selection because it is he/she who is responsible for the performance of the new employee.
(v) Medical Examination: After the selection decision and before the job offer is made, the candidate is required to undergo a medical fitness test. The job offer is given to the candidate being declared fit after the medical examination.
(vi) Job Offer: The next step in the selection process is job offer to those applicants who have passed all the previous hurdles.
Job offer is made through a letter of appointment/confirm his acceptance. Such a letter generally contains a date by which the appointee must report on duty. The appointee must be given reasonable time for reporting.
vii) Contract of Employment: After the job offer has been made and candidate accepts the offer, certain documents need to be executed by the employer and the candidate. One such document is the attestation form. This form contains certain vital details about the candidate, which are authenticated and attested by him or her. Attestation form will be a valid record for future reference. There is also a need for preparing a contract of employment. Basic information that should be included in a written contract of employment will vary according to the level of the job, but the following checklists sets out the typical headings: Job Title, Duties, Responsibilities, Date when continuous employment starts and the basis for calculating service, rates of pay, allowances, hours of work, leave rules, sickness, grievance procedure, disciplinary procedure, work rules, termination of employment.