Business Studies Part I
Business Studies Part II

Solution of Question Paper

1 Mark Questions

Ans 1. Motivation is the process of stimulating people to action to accomplish desired goals.

Ans 2: In every organisation, directing function is performed by every manager regardless of the level of management from top executive to supervisor. Therefore, it is said that directing takes place wherever superior-subordinate relations exist.
Ans 3. Formal communication is being used in the above example.

Ans 4. While communicating a message, misrepresentation of communication causes misunderstanding on account of use of wrong words lack of vocabulary skills, faulty translations, different interpretations is known as semantic barriers. It is concerned with the problems which arises in the process of encoding and decoding of message into words or impressions. Main causes of semantic barriers are listed below

(i) Badly expressed message
(ii) Symbols with different meanings
(iii) Faulty translations
(iv) Unclarified assumptions
(v) Technical jargon
(vi) Body language and gesture decoding

Ans 5. Single Strand Network Each person communicates to the other in sequence.

5 Marks Questions

Ans 6. Principles of Directing are:

  • Maximum Individual Contribution:This principle emphasises that directing techniques must help every employee to contribute to his maximum potential in order to achieve the organisational goals. It should help In bringing out unused or dormant potential of an employee to improve the efficiency of the organisation. e.g., suitable and appropriate Incentives should be given to encourage employees to improve their performance.
  • Harmony of Objectives:Most of the lime It happens that the organisational objectives and Individual objectives move in opposite directions, The person In charge of a team of workers should guide and Instruct his team In such a manner that they realise the Importance 0f both the objectives
  • Unity of Command:This principle insists that a person in the organisation should receive Instructions from one superior only. If Instructions are received from more than one, it creates confusion, conflict and disorder In the organisation Adherence to this principle ensures effective direction. 
  • Appropriateness of Direction Technique:According to this principle. appropriate motivational and leadership technique should be used while directing the people based on subordinate needs capabilities. attitudes etc, e.g .. combination of both monetary and non-monetary Incentives should be used to elicit the right response from the employees.
  • Managerial Communication:Directing should convey clear Instructions to create total understanding to subordinates Through proper feed back the manager should ensure that subordinate understands his instructions clearly.
  • Use of Informal Organisation:Informal groups or organisations exist within every formal organisation and every manager should spot and make use of such organisations for effective directing.
  • Leadership:While directing the subordinates managers should exercise good leadership as it can influence the subordinates positively without causing dissatisfaction among them.
  • Follow Through:Mere giving of an order is not sufficient Managers should follow It up.

Ans 7. Ankur is not in a position to understand the message due to lack of attention. It is a type of psychological barrier. The preoccupied mind of the receiver leads to non-listening of a message which acts as a major psychological barrier. Some of the other psychological barriers are described below:

  • Premature evaluation:Sometimes people tend to evaluate the meaning of a message on the basis of their own judgement, experience etc., even before the sender completes his message. This may lead to misinterpretation of the message.
  • Loss by transmission and poor retention:When communication passes through various levels, successive transmissions of the message result in the loss of information or transmission of inaccurate information. Also, sometimes due to poor retention, people cannot retain the information for a long time if they are inattentive or not interested.
  • Distrust:If the communicator and communicator not trust each other, it may act as a barrier. This is because if they do not believe each other, they may not understand each other’s message in the desired sense.