There are various methods of training. These are broadly categorised into two groups: On-the-Job and Off-the- Job methods. On-the-Job methods refer to the methods that are applied to the workplace, while the employee is actually working. Off-the-Job methods are used away from the work place. The former means learning while doing, while the latter means learning before doing.
(i) Apprenticeship Programmes: Apprenticeship programmes put the trainee under the guidance of a master worker. These are designed to acquire a higher level of skill. People seeking to enter skilled traits, to become, for example, plumbers, electricians or iron-workers, are often required to undergo apprenticeship training. These apprentices are trainees who spend a prescribed amount of time working with an experienced guide, or trainer. A uniform period of training is offered to trainees, in which both fast and slow learn here, are placed together. Slow learners may require additional training.
(ii) Coaching: In this method, the superior guides and instructs the trainee as a coach. The coach or counselor sets mutually agreed upon goals, suggests how to achieve these goals, periodically reviews the trainees progress and suggests changes required in behavior and performance. The trainee works directly with a senior manager and the manager takes full responsibility for the trainee’s coaching. Classically the trainee is being groomed to replace the senior manager and relieve him from some of his duties. This gives a chance for the trainee to learn the job also.
(iii) Internship Training: It is a joint programme of training in which educational institutions and business firms cooperate. Selected candidates carry on regular studies for the prescribed period. They also work in some factory or office to acquire practical knowledge and skills.
(iv) Job Rotation: This kind of training involves shifting the trainee from one department to another or from one job to another. This enables the trainee to gain a broader understanding of all parts of the business and how the organisation as a whole functions. The trainee gets fully involved in the departments operations and also gets a chance to test her own aptitude and ability. Job rotation allows trainees to interact with other employees facilitating future cooperation among departments. When employees are trained by this method, the organisation finds it easier at the time of promotions, replacements or transfers.
(i) Class Room Lectures/Conferences: The lecture or conference approach is well adapted to conveying specific informationrules, procedures or methods. The use of audio-visuals or demonstrations can often make a formal classroom presentation more interesting while increasing retention and offering a vehicle for clarifying more difficult points.
(ii) Films: They can provide information and explicitly demonstrate skills that are not easily represented
by the other techniques. Used in conjunction with conference discussions, it is a very effective method in certain cases.
(iii) Case Study: Taken from actual experiences of organisations, cases represent attempts to describe, as accurately as possible real problems that managers have faced. Trainees study the cases to determine problems, analyse causes, develop alternative solutions, select what they believe to be the best solution, and implement it.
(iv) Computer Modelling: It simulates the work environment by programming a computer to imitate some of the realities of the job and allows learning to take place without the risk or high costs that would be incurred if a mistake were made in real life situation.
(v) Vestibule Training: Employees learn their jobs on the equipment they will be using, but the training is conducted away from the actual work floor. Actual work environments are created in a class room and employees use the same materials, files and equipment. This is usually done when employees are required to handle sophisticated machinery and equipment.
(vi) Programmed Instruction: This method incorporates a prearranged and proposed acquisition of some specific skills or general knowledge. Information is broken into meaningful units and these units are arranged in a proper way to form a logical and sequential learning package i.e. from simple to complex. The trainee goes through these units by answering questions or filling the blanks.